The modern world runs almost entirely with the help of computers. Being that as it is, computer science is critical to software development and the use of artificial intelligence, but what exactly is computer science? More specifically, what is the role of computer sciences in software and artificial intelligence development?
What is Computer Science?
Computer science, simply put, is the study of computers and their computing process, and their functions in theoretical and practical applications. Computer science uses multiple fields of study and the principles therein to contribute to the imagination and creation of new artifices. Mathematics, engineering, and other sciences inform the logic-based software programs that run off of coded algorithms.
Incorporating techniques drawn from probability, statistics, electronics, and physics all play into the final products that are a vast variety of software and hardware available today. It should be noted however, that computer science as a discipline is only one category of the broad term “computing”. The five separate, but interrelated disciplines are computer science, information systems, information technology, software engineering, and computer engineering.
Computer and information research scientists are responsible for the invention, testing, and creation of computational technologies. Some principal areas of application within the field of computer science include computer systems and their networks, human-computer interaction, numerical analysis, and security.
These scientists work to build an understanding of how and why certain technologies work together to create real-life solutions through investigation, programming data, and networks as well as understanding how this technology of computers affects the world.
Foundational Concepts in Computer Science
There are two foundational concepts upon which computer science rests: computer literacy and digital citizenship.
Computer literacy is the term that describes the general use of computers and their programs in private or personal settings. This considers the use of these technologies through their various hardware mediums such as computers, tablets, cell phones, databases, and software. The hardware— the physical components which make up computer systems— is directed by the software: A set of program instructions that guide the hardware in its abilities to perform pre-programmed tasks. Applied software directs functions dictated by the user. Examples of software include word processors, databases, inventory management systems, and spreadsheets.
Building on computer literacy, digital citizenship refers to the ability of persons to employ computer usage appropriately and responsibly in our modern economy. The consideration of these acceptable uses for computers both in theory and practice are theories that must be considered during, before, and after the development of hardware and software systems. This is especially true in the development of artificial intelligence.
Subcategories of Computer Science
There are three primary subcategories of computer science: Theory, human-to-computer interaction, and systems. The theory comprises the uses of various fields of science which enable the development and testing of the applicability of algorithmic systems to accomplish the tasks set forth. Human-to-computer interaction considers how the creation and implementation of computer systems (hardware and software) affect humanity in real-world applications.
Systems are the consideration of the development of the hardware and software that enact the directions given by users. Each of these put together makes up a sketch of how computer scientists seek to address societal functions and problems across the world through the development of software systems.
What is Software Development?
Software development is the creation, design, and production of supporting softwares that enable computers to function. The software itself, as previously noted, is the set of instructions that give commands for that computer to accomplish various tasks. Software systems house functions that are key to the system running properly. These are things like its hard disk, utilities, hardware management, and many other operational functions.
There are three subcategories that make up the field of software development: Programming, Software Engineers, and software developers.
Software engineers are the people responsible for the engineering of computer systems. They implement code languages to create solutions that have practical applications. They work in tangent to system programmers, analysts, and other engineers to design systems, and theorize potential services, and performance capabilities. They do this by considering the needs of users, whether this is for individual private usage or businesses, through mathematical models and scientific analysis.
Developers are people who use programming and design theory to construct software that meets the needs of users. They accomplish this by utilizing diagrams, writing code, and creating models which become the basis by which they can determine the efficiency of software systems. Designing things like computer programs and applications, they focus on how these systems will be enacted in various hardware like laptops, cell phones, or video game consoles.
What is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial intelligence utilizes computers, machines, and their software systems to enact human-like reasoning to solve problems or enable desired actions. It is the ability of a digital presence to perform tasks that are typically reserved for human function.
Computers or machines, programmed by software engineers and software developers with an understanding of computer science, are thus artificially enabled to function in ways that help human beings in their various tasks. As such, computer science is an inseparable element in both software development and artificial intelligence sciences.
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